Today’s cities are grappling with problems ranging from gridlocked traffic and overflowing landfills, to unaffordable housing and growing inequality. Without action, those problems will only get worse.
To address this, architects and designers have come up with innovative solutions — from vertical farms and biome greenhouses, to self-driving cars and underground recycling systems — to make future cities smarter and more sustainable.
While some of the cities of tomorrow are still designs, others have already been built — but not always without complications.
Scroll through the gallery above to discover how the cities of tomorrow are shaping up.